Sunday, May 24, 2020

What Is the Plural of Hippopotamus

Question: What Is the Plural of Hippopotamus? Answer: Technically, you could use either hippopotamuses or hippopotami and be correct. This isnt much comfort to many people, however, since both seem to make us feel a little silly. Its probably safest to go with hippopotamuses. Â   See also: Subject Verb Agreement

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay about Minority Students in Special Education Programs

The special education programs in the United States have been designed to help children with special needs learn easier and fit in better with the education program. Unfortunately, many minority students get caught up in the mix and don’t get the proper attention they deserve. Furthermore, minority students are seriously over-represented in the educational programs. Many minority students are misdiagnosed and put into special education programs when in fact; they do not have a learning disability. This has become a growing problem in this country because it is seen as the easy way out. Schools all over the U.S. are doing this in order to not have to properly test and evaluate students for learning problems. There have been†¦show more content†¦The two important court rulings were the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1971 and Mills vs. The Board of Education of the District of Columbia in 1972 (ERIC Clearinghouse, 1998). These court decisions showed that â€Å"the responsibility of States and local school districts to educate individuals with disabilities is derived from the equal protection law of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.†(ERIC Clearinghouse, 1998, n.p.) The special education programs of the United States have definitely come very far in the last 25 years, but little progress has been made about minority or sometimes considered migrant, special education students. A migrant student is one that transfers from school district to school district with his parents who are trying to find seasonal employment (Lozano-Rodriguez Costellano, 1999). It has been shown that even though these migrant students do not get the attention they deserve they are some of the most needy special education children. They suffer from poor nutrition, poverty and many health problems (Lozano-Rodriguez Costellano, 1999). The law requires that all children should be fairly evaluated in their native language and then classified into the correct disability category (Lozano-Rodriguez Costellano, 1999). As Lozano-Rodriguez and Costellano (1999) state inShow MoreRelatedMinority Groups And The Minority Group Within Special Education1698 Words   |  7 PagesDisproportionality refers to the overrepresentation or underrepresentation of a minority group within special education programs and services. The disproportionate representation of minority students in special education has been an ongoing and significant matter in education for decades. More and more minority children are being identified as disabled or having an intellectual disability or learning disability. However, in most cases the children are being misdiagnosed and consequently, are beingRead MoreAn Interview About Special Education920 Words   |  4 Pagesinterview about the disproportionality of African Americans students in special educat ion programs. In the interest of confidentiality, the interviewee’s name will not be disclosed throughout this paper. To discuss questions surrounding the aforementioned topic, it was important to gather the educator’s experiences about special education programs in general. In her third year of teaching she taught in a self-contained classroom, where students had severe and profound disabilities. She quoted seven yearsRead MoreAfrican American Students And Special Education923 Words   |  4 PagesIn education, the main goal is for all students to receive an equal and optimal opportunity for success, which also includes students with special needs. 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This phenomenon is linked to the presence of a language barrier as well as otherRead MoreEthnic And Racial Discrimination Of Special Education1017 Words   |  5 PagesEthnic and Racial Disproportionality in Special Education Former Education Secretary Arne Duncan said The undeniable truth is that the everyday educational experience for many students of color violates the principle of equity at the heart of the American promise. It is our collective duty to change that (Ed.gov, 2012). This was in response to the U.S. Department of Education s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) findings reporting that minority students across the U.S. face tougher discipline, haveRead MoreMulticultural Education, Its Purpose, Goals, And Challenges Inclusive824 Words   |  4 Pagesbehind multicultural education, its purpose, goals, and challenges inclusive to multiculturalism. One of the challenges’ that Banks noted was the problem was with â€Å"Ideological resistance by assimilationist is a major factor that has slowed and is still slowing the development of a multicultural curriculum† (p. 244). Bank’s literature contributed to the knowledge of historical patterns associated with multicultural education and the need for more multicultural programs in education. Jia (2015) contributedRead MoreAdmissions Guidelines For The Admissions1289 Words   |  6 Pagesoverall undergraduate GPA, the GPA in Science courses, the score of the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), letters of recommendation, extracurricular activities and other bibliographical data is taken in to account to satisfy the admissions program. In 1973, the admissions committee was composed of 5 members that rated each candidate. The perfect â€Å"benchmark† score was 500 which mean a rating of 100 of all 5 members of the committee. In 1974, another member was added to admissions committee making

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Principles of Morality Free Essays

Humans must not treat each other merely as a means to satisfy an end. Human beings are objects of dignity and not a mere machine, thus deserving respect to and from each other and respect to the law as well. Respect, although a human feeling, is a self-wrought rational concept and, thus, free of influences. We will write a custom essay sample on The Principles of Morality or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is the true essence of ethics that   is supposed to exist among human beings. However, as Kant implied in his Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals this is not always the case, that humans behave to each other in pursuance of freedom, human rights, violence, peace and anything attributing to his own well-being as well as to the well-being of others and the community in general. Kant has acknowledged in his arguments   that aside from respect and duty, human acts accordingly based on his inclinations and, or worse, out of fear. However, it was emphasized that with obedience to law the actions would be in conformity to that law and would become a binding principle among humans. Respect is properly the conception of a worth which thwarts my self-love. Accordingly it is something which is considered neither as an object of inclination nor of fear, although it has something analogous to both. The object of respect is the law only, and that the law which we impose on ourselves and yet recognise as necessary in itself. (Kant) Humans need guidance to be enlightened and eventually be free and at the same time, need a universal law to exist among them for their own sake.   This law would be the imposing object of humans to themselves as a result of their will. This include the common day-to-day congenial acts of humanity such as honesty, faithfulness, respect for each other, trustworthiness, non-imprisonment of innocent individuals and be like the example that was in Kant’s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, keeping ones promises. Why is it a wrong deed for A if she took the hand of B forcing the latter to shoot C? This case would be an act of deception and coercion and obviously a crime, in which case, against the universal law. A have â€Å"bypassed†(Hare 13) the agency of B as A used B as the shooting medium. It is also a deception when A impede the rational   choice and free will of B to make the decision and the action. This is a violation of the universal law and it is a treatment of humans, in this case B, as without dignity but only used as a means to achieve an end, the shooting of C. As the source of guidance to the acts, duties and obligations of humans, morality is very important. In fact, as Kant have argued, â€Å"it is only a pure philosophy that we can look for the moral law in its purity and genuineness.† This means that even morality itself may have something of its own immoralities within: a hidden motive. To someone of a morally good, or a virtuous, character that someone should perform an act without looking at the effect of that certain action or, without deriving the motive of that act from its possible effect. A virtuous character â€Å"wants† or â€Å"wills† (or what Kant calls the â€Å"principle of volition†) the performance of an act for the act itself and not from the expected results or a return that can be gained from doing such acts. As Kant have put it: â€Å"an action done from duty derives its moral worth, not from the purpose which is to be attained by it, but from the maxim by which it is determined† Moreover, the virtuous person thus acts in accordance to the â€Å"autonomy†, that would be an act of the holy will, which can be viewed as â€Å"absolutely good† according to Kant. The autonomy causes the Will of the action a â€Å"law to itself†. This is because the Autonomy of the Will is the supreme principle of morality which makes a rational being of freedom efficient and independent upon his choices and actions, as opposed to an irrational being who is fragile to influences of the external environment. However, if the will is only based on necessity of morality, this would become an obligation, and the action resulting from it is called duty. This makes autonomy as one of the important limitations of morality: â€Å"part of the dignity of life is choosing one’s own path through it. Given those limits, there can be principles so demanding that compliance simply will not be forthcoming.† (Griffin 127) Human actions have imperatives and are governed by the Ought. Acknowledging its obligations is a way for humans to be within the world with sense and understanding. However, this conception of obligation is not easily accepted or might be challenged by humans due to immaturity, ignorance or fanaticism. Humans are supposed to be rational beings that belong to an intelligible world, conscious and responsible for its actions. It is, however, very evident that humans act in the contrary and as Kant has argued, â€Å"can never conceive the causality of his own will otherwise than on condition of the idea of freedom.† This might be attributed to immaturity which not an outside force to him but something that he has self-incurred. This is the lack of courage and resolution from the side of humans to use his â€Å"own understanding without the guidance of others.† (Kant) Immaturity would hinder the purpose of morality laws that have an ultimate principle conceived to guide humans in every possible circumstances in life. Without recognizing their respective obligations, humans would be living in darkness, without a well defined function in life. This would hinder the attainment of human freedom, his free will. In Kant’s An Answer to the Question: â€Å"What is Enlightenment?† he has emphasized the value of freedom that can only be attained by an enlightened humanity. Without recognition of the obligations, there would be no duty. Without duty means without worth of   morality for human actions. Works Cited Griffin, James. Well-Being: Its Meaning, Measurement, and Moral Importance. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986. Questia. 5 May 2008 ;http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o;d=26035794;. Hare, John E. The Moral Gap : Kantian Ethics, Human Limits, and God’s Assistance /. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Questia. 5 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=od=102096160. How to cite The Principles of Morality, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Essay about Sociological Research Methods And Research Essay Example For Students

Essay about Sociological Research Methods And Research Essay As society and individuals are continuously changing it makes it difficult to study society as a whole due to the many challenges in terms of the correct method to utilize if wanting to achieve appropriate results. Although, sociology is viewed as a form of science the research methodologies differ. Nevertheless, when studying about society, sociology is seen as effective, however, various scientific methods may be used to gain the most accurate findings. A sociologists main interest is to observe and explain society, therefore the research procedure must be taken seriously. Meaning, the steps taken must be done appropriately and systematically to obtain accurate results. Therefore, â€Å"skipping or skimping any steps will risk the reliability and validity of the research† (Arvanitakis 2016). Sociological research methods usually consist of surveys, field work, experiments and secondary data analysis (Little 2014). Even though it may seem odd to use scientific methods to study society, its systematic approach provides order to the research. Nevertheless, social interactions are different and forever changing which makes it difficult to chart or explain. Due to this reason scientific processes are helpful as it â€Å"establishes parameters which aid in the objectivity and accuracy of the research† (Little 2014). However, scientific methods provide â€Å"limitations† and â€Å"boundaries† (Little 2014) which need to be crossed when studying society since it is so diverse. Nevertheless, the first step when using the scientific method is to identify the problem or area of interest. The research topic must not be too narrow nor too broad, on the other hand â€Å"sociologists do not rule out any topic† (Little 2014) when formulating the research subject. . .methods in order to choose the correct one for their research.The evidence demonstrates, that sociologists juggle between the two methods and choose the one that is the most appropriate for the research topic. The scientific method provides systematic and organised research which will aid the researcher in conducting the study as well as ensuing that the data is reliable and valid. Although, sociological research is complex it provides reliable and valid results as well as reasons behind these results which is something the scientific method does not include. Which is vital when studying society as it is so diverse. Thus, researchers might use a single method or combine them depending on the subject of the study, as sociology is viewed as an appropriate discipline when studying society however the scientific method allows research to be more organized and coherent.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Scoping report for the earthquakes in New Madrid, and Fulton City, Missouri

Introduction Earthquakes are not a new phenomenon in the U.S.: numerous parts of the country experience them. They are cause stress accumulation in the underground rocks. The accumulation of this stress is a clear indication of the slow but constant movement of the earth’s outermost rocky layers.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Scoping report for the earthquakes in New Madrid, and Fulton City, Missouri specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These are large sections of which move about earth as tectonic plates. The collision or grinding of adjacent plates leads to stressing of rocks. This stress is then released to the earth’s surface in the form of sudden shifts. Consequently, plate boundaries are the primary breeding ground for earthquakes. Earthquakes have many effects. They can cause deaths, injuries, and damages to buildings and other structures. They may lead to a wide range of long term economic or social impacts. As such, they should be addressed with a proportionate measure of seriousness and concern. Governments should use the past as a lesson on addressing any future occurrences of these disasters. This report examines the scope of the earthquake phenomenon in New Madrid and Fulton city, Missouri. Earthquakes in New Madrid: When did it all begin? The winter of 1811-12 was not an average humdrum winter to the residents of New Madrid. If anyone had been keen to record the events of that season, the manuscript would probably have been rejected as being just too fanciful for compelling fiction. In deed, seismologists call it the greatest release of seismic energy is so short a time ever witnessed and recorded by human beings. A few individual earthquakes have been bigger. In a few instances perhaps they have been more numerous within a short span. However, never so many were so big in so short a time (Braile et al., 1982). The drastic events that took place on December 16, 18 16 indicate that catastrophic earthquakes do not occur in the western [parts of the United States alone. In the last two and half decades, seismologists have come to learn that strong earth quakes that occur in the central Mississippi Valley are not mere events but have occurred repeatedly throughout the geologic past.Advertising Looking for report on geology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This area has come to be known as the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) (Pratt, 2009). The zone occupies the southeastern part of Missouri and the southern part of Illinois. The NMSZ consists of a number of thrust faults stretching from Marked Tree in Arkansas, to Cairo in Illinois. Earthquakes that occur in the eastern or central parts of the United States are worse than those of similar magnitude in the western parts. For instance, an earth quake that occurred in San Francisco, California in 1906 had some magnitude of 7.8 measured on the Ri chter scale. It was experienced some 350 miles away in the center of Nevada. However, an earthquake of almost a similar magnitude that occurred in New Madrid on December of 1811 went to the extent of ringing bells in Boston, a city that is 1000 miles away from the epicenter. Such geographical disparities in the east and west are caused by the Rocky Mountains. The large earthquakes, which occur in the region notably, affect the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The closest areas that are also affected by the zone earthquakes are Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois (Weznger 213). The southwestern parts of Indiana and the northwestern Mississippi have also declared to receive extraordinary shaking from the region’s strong earthquakes. The latest New Madrid fault system covers an area of 120 miles, cutting across the Mississippi River, as well as Ohio River (Braile et al., 1982). Geology of New Madrid Seismic Zone The New Madrid Seismic Zone is found in the northern region of Miss issippi embayment. The latter is a broad trough full of marine sedimentary rocks that are dated 50-100 million years ago. The top 30 meters of sediment that is in the embayment comprise of sand, silt, and clay. They were deposited by Rivers Mississippi, White, Ohio, and St. Francis. The NMSZ is composed of faults that were experienced when the area currently referred to as North America broke up. This occurrence occurred approximately 750 million years ago (Penick, 2001).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Scoping report for the earthquakes in New Madrid, and Fulton City, Missouri specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main cracks formed resulted to the present faults that are found in the zone. The magma that was pushed from inside the rocks came at the surface and formed themselves into igneous rocks. The rift that was formed when the earth was splitting off remained as a region of weakness underneath the earth su rface. Later, yet another unsuccessful rifting trial left the area weaker than before, hence, creating more faults. The second occurrence of unsuccessful rifting occurred approximately 200 million years ago (Pratt, 2009). The reel foot rift was realized because of geological structures that emerged after every rifting attempt. The large rocks that are found underneath the earths surface in New Madrid are feared to be mechanically weaker than most of other parts of North America, due to the past fault that were created. Chart 1. The geology of New Madrid Seismic Zone Source: Tuttle, M., Associates. (2011). ‘The geology of NMSZ’. The underneath weaknesses, together with the effects of stronger rocks, allow the east west condensed forces to reinforce the old faults. Although there are several rifts that are experienced in most parts of North America, not all of them are associated with the modern types of earthquakes that occur in the area.Advertising Looking for report on geology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the mid-continent rift system that starts from Minnesota and ends in Kansas may not be associated with any earthquake, as other processes may add to mechanical stress on the already existing faults (Braile et al., 1982). Some of the local processes that are suspected to cause earthquakes are downward pulling from underneath rocks that are below the fault. Other incidences include bending of the lithosphere because of continental glaciers melting. The earthquake experiences: a ground for further investigations Several suggestions are made concerning the heating that happen in the lithosphere, may result in making the big rocks inside more plastic. This heating may cause the concentration of compression force in the shallow underneath regions, where the faulting happens. There is also a model that describes local stress to happen because of a change in the passage of the mantle below the New Madrid Seismic Zone, due to sinking Carillon Plate. There are three types of tre nds realized when epicenters of modern earthquakes are presented in the form of a map. The first system of a trend is referred to as general northeast southwest. This trend is parallel to the drift of the Reel foot Rift in part of Arkansas. The second system of the trend is called southeast to northwest. This drift is experienced at the southwest part of New Madrid. The third system of a trend is known as northeast to northwestern. It extends to the farthest end of the Reel foot Fault (Penick, 2001). The New Madrid Seismic Zone recorded four of the largest earthquakes that have happened in North America. They were big earthquakes believed to be as large as 8.0. The largest earthquakes that were first experienced in this zone occurred between 1811 and 1812. The New Madrid Sequence is the overall effect of all the earthquakes that happened during that period. It has been always a challenge to measure the effect of one earthquake. The magnitude approximates and epicenters are based on the results of historical records, and this may vary from one period to the other. Earthquakes in the past or the recent ones that have happened for the last 10000 years have been caused by faults, which are not always micro seismically active. According to some of the researches done, it is evident that quiet faults are at times dangerous than the active ones. High built up stress blocks both sides of the fault, hence hindering the occurrence of micro seismic earthquakes. This process happens before the major rupture of the fault happens; investigations are still ongoing to define whether such types of faults do happen in New Madrid Seismic Zone (Weznger, 2010). Further investigations are required to proof, as it would be hard to locate such incidences. For the last 10000 years, people in this zone felt more than two thousand quakes. Crude seismograph instruments were used to detect these quakes, and most journalists managed to record these events in personal journals (Pratt, 2009) . In the central United States, rocks that are found there are hard, cold, and dry. The presence of such rocks makes earthquake in this region to be strong than the earthquakes that happen in California as well as in other areas. The earthquakes, which happen within the New Madrid Seismic Zone, cause damages, which are approximately 20 times larger than in other areas (Penick, 2001). The measurement challenge For many years, it has been a great challenge to estimate the recurrence of earthquake. With approximate locations, time and dates, and the size, it would be capable to provide a rough estimate of recurrence interval (Nixon, 2009)). Currently, some pale seismologists have provided people with information that two or more earthquakes of seven or more magnitude were experienced in the last 2000 years. They used some information to come up with a recurrence interval estimate of 3000 to 1000 years. It was estimated that, after 100 years, the New Madrid Seismic Zone would experience an earthquake of magnitude more than 6. These 100 hundred years were to be calculated since 1812, but this time has already elapsed. The estimates are not always accurate, and that is one of the major issues, which require further investigations. Effects of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes The 1811-1812 earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone had many effects. The most obvious of these include sandy blows. These were due to the upsurge of water and sand to the ground surface. This phenomenon is known as earthquake-induced liquefaction (see chart below). This is the process by which a saturated soil substantially loses its power and strength due to a stress that is applied to it by an earthquake shaking. This makes the soil to act like a liquid. Soil liquefaction leads to a number of cascading hazards such as floods, landslides, and river debris (Tuttle Associates, 2011). During the 1811-12 earthquakes, sand blows formed over an extremely large area measuring about 10, 400 s quare kilometers. The effects of these were experienced 200km away in the northeastern part of the NMSZ. Even today, sand blows are visible in the New Madrid region. They appear as sandy patches that have a light color in cultivated fields. Chart 2. Sand blows and the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. Source: Tuttle, M., Associates. (2011). ‘Sand blows and the New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811-12’. Recent earthquakes of medium magnitude have led to loss of lives and destruction of property worth billions of dollars. For instance, in Northridge, California, an earth quake of magnitude 6.7 led to the death of 33 residents, and destruction of property worth $20 billion. In the following year, an earthquake of magnitude 6.9 occurred in Kobe, Japan killing 5, 500 people and destroying property valued at $100 billion (Penick, 2001). These statistics indicate that there is a need for the inhabitants of New Madrid Seismic Zone to be prepared in case an earthquake of such med ium magnitude happens in the future. This is because earthquakes of medium magnitude are likely to occur than those of great magnitude. In deed, seismologists approximate the likelihood of the occurrence of an earthquake that is of magnitude 6.0 or greater within the next 50 years ranges from 25% to 40% (Weznger, 2010). If such a disaster happens, it is bound to affect more people than the incident that occurred on December 1811. This is because the population of the central Mississippi Valley was smaller compared to the current one consisting of millions of people. In addition, the calamity is likely to be dangerous because many structures in the area were not designed to withstand earthquakes as is the case in areas that are more seismic active such as California (Pratt, 2009). Earthquakes in Fulton, Missouri Chart 3. Welcome sign of Fulton City, MO Source: Citi-Data.com. (2011). ‘Welcome to Fulton signs’. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/picfilesv/picv25526.p hp Fulton is the largest city in the Kingdom of Callaway County. As of 2009, it population stood at 12, 814. According to the 2000 census, the average household income is $32, 625. Callaway water district provides a lot of employment opportunities for the residents of Fulton City. Other institutions that are of economic value to the city include Fulton State Hospital and Missouri School for the Deaf. According to the 2000 census, the average household income is $32, 625 (City of Fulton, MO., 2011). Geology of Fulton. The city is situated on a low-lying land. Missouri River is the defining physical feature in Mid-Missouri, and it surrounds the southwester border of Callaway County. There are three dominant soil types in the Callaway County. These are alluvium, sandy clay, and clay loam till soils (Chalfant, 2008). Just like the rest of Missouri County, the weather patterns in Missouri are not constant. There are both extremes of temperature. The county has experienced a number of na tural hazards in the history of its existence. These include floods, severe weather conditions, tornadoes, and hail. In the recent past, the most memorial natural hazard that took occurred in this county is the Flood of 1993. This flood affected a large portion of Missouri State causing a lot of damage on commercial properties, public facilities, transportation, as well as agriculture. The geology of Fulton is similar to that of the central region of the U.S. It consists of cold, dry and less fractured rocks. Although the probability of an earthquake is not high as in the case of New Madrid, any occurrence of the same will be more hazardous than it would have been the case in other regions such as California. In the recent past, a number of earthquakes have been recorded in the area. On July 31, 2005, an earthquake of magnitude 3.3 was experienced 43 miles from the city center. On March 30, 2001, an earthquake of magnitude 3.1 was felt 98 miles from Fulton City center (Citi-Data.com , 2011). The above statistics indicate that the risk of, although the magnitude of earthquakes occurring in the city may be small and do mot occur in the city centre, there is a high probability of such occurrences in the future. Nevertheless, the occurrence of earthquakes in Fulton is way below that of the entire Missouri state. However, this does not imply that the phenomenon is not an issue of concern to the city. Although earthquakes in this area have not been very destructive in the past as compared to that in New Madrid, any occurrence of earthquakes in this region can destroy the Callaway Nuclear Facility, hence cutting off the livelihoods of many residents who work in it (American Services, 2011). Summary of main findings Earthquakes are always occurring, with some being too small to be felt while others are large enough to cause irreparable damages. On average, major earthquakes happen once in a year. This will depend on the location of a place on the planet. However, more seismic active areas like the New Madrid Seismic Zone have high risks of experiencing hazardous earthquakes than other areas in the state of Missouri. This high probability is of great concern to Fulton city as it predisposes the latter to this risk. The duration of earthquakes is generally short compared to other hazards such as floods. It could be minutes, or even seconds. The main earthquake event lasts for a short duration. The foreshocks and aftershocks linked with a single geological shift can be detected weeks before or months later. This was the case with the December 1811-12 earthquakes that span for a period of three months until March the following year. The amount of destruction that results from an earthquake depends on several factors, one of them is strength. Earthquakes vary remarkably in their power. Some can be barely felt while others can knock one off their feet or buildings off their foundation. There are two principal methods of measuring earthquakes. These are the Richter scale and Mercalli Scale. The Richter scale is more famous than the Mercalli scale. It was formulated in 1935 by Charles F. Richter, a seismologist. The scale indicates ground motion in an earthquake. Its values range from 0 to 9 (see appendix). However, theoretically, the range can be higher. The numbers are logarithmic, implying that each whole number is ten times greater than the preceding whole number. For instance, the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12 were of magnitude (Heatwole, 2011). The second scale, the Mercalli scale, was developed in 1902 by Giuseppe Mercalli. The scale measures the intensity or violence of an earthquake in terms of damage caused to human-built structures. It is expressed by a series of Roman numerals ranging from I to XII (see appendix). An increase in the scale implies an incr4ease in intensity of the violence caused by the earthquake. Going by this scale, the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12 were so intense such that the Mississippi Riv er changed its course, and an island in the river disappeared (Feldman, 2005). In addition, new land arose, forests were cleared, and the ground rolled in visible waves that swept houses away, gardens, and fields. Nevertheless, few people perished during the incident due to the fact the area was sparsely populated then (Missouri Department of Natural Resources, 2011). Mitigating the risks of earthquakes: Prevention is better than cure The decision for mitigation of lifelines against seismic hazard is a quite complex issue as different institutions such as government, local authorities, lifeline companies, or the insurance industry are involved. In addition, the decision is further complicated since it is based on the results of the seismic risk assessment of lifelines which include various uncertainties owing to seismic hazard, vulnerability, performance, and loss estimation. Considering that earthquakes are a natural phenomenon little can be done to adjust the natural events system . As such, any mitigation efforts should be directed to human use systems (Balassanian, 2000). A number of practices can be handy in the mitigation of earth quakes. These include regulation of land use, education of the population about possible extreme events, as well as outfitting infrastructure tom meet local building codes. The readability of structures to withstand stress caused by earthquakes can be. Soil liquefaction caused by earthquakes can be mitigated through the installation of drains or use of deep, resistant pillars in construction (Keith Petely, 2009). Conclusion This report has explored the earthquake in Fulton and New Madrid. It is evident that these two are at a great risk of experiencing an earthquake in the near future. However, the frequency of another big earthquake in New Madrid or Fulton areas of Missouri is debatable. Nevertheless, the undeniable reality is that the region has a high seismic action. There is a need for education programs to enlighten the re sidents on the precaution measures that are highly required in the event of an earthquake. In addition, buildings in these two areas should take into account the vulnerability of the regions. As such, they should be enhanced by use of smart designs along with appropriate materials such as steel and reinforced-concrete. If history is anything to go by, residents of these areas should not throw caution to the wind as far as earthquake mitigation is concerned. They should take the appropriate measure to avoid a repeat of the events December 1811-12. Although an earthquake is a purely natural phenomenon, prevention is of prominence in these earthquake-prone areas. As they say, prevention is better than cure, or even, to be for-warned is to be for-armed. References American Services. (2011). Callaway Plant Profile. Web. Balassanian, S., et al. (2000). Earthquake hazard and seismic risk reduction. Berlin: Springer. Braile, L., et al. (1982). ‘An ancient rift complex and its relation to contemporary seismicity in the New Madrid Seismic Zone’, Tectonics, Vol. 1. Chalfant, M. (2008). Soil Survey of Callaway County Missouri. Web. Citi-Data.com. (2011). ‘Missouri’. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/city/Fulton-Missouri.html City of Fulton, MO. (2011). ‘Demographics’. Retrieved from http://fultonmo.org/about-us/demographics/ Feldman, J. (2005). When the Mississippi ran backwards: empire, intrigue, murder, and the New Madrid earthquakes. New York: Simon and Schuster. Heatwole, C. (2011). Geography for dummies. London: Wiley Sons. Keith S., Petely, D. (2009). Environmental hazards- assessing risk and reducing disaster, 5th ed. Michigan: Routledge. Missouri Department of Natural Resources (2011). Web. Nixon, J. (2009). â€Å"Facts about the New Madrid Seismic Zone.† Natural Resources. Web. Penick, J. L. (2001). The New Madrid earthquakes. Missouri: University of Missouri Press. Pratt, T. L. (2009) ‘How old is the NM SZ’. Web. Tuttle, M., Associates. (2011). ‘The geology of NMSZ’. Web. Weznger, B. (2010). The New Madrid Seismic Zone: Whose fault is it anyway? New York: Bibliogov. This report on Scoping report for the earthquakes in New Madrid, and Fulton City, Missouri was written and submitted by user GwenStacy to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Feminist Poetry Movement of the 1960s

Feminist Poetry Movement of the 1960s Feminist poetry is a movement that came to life during the 1960s, a decade when many writers challenged traditional notions of form and content. There is no defining moment when the feminist poetry movement began; rather, women wrote about their experiences and entered into a dialogue with readers over many years before the 1960s. Feminist poetry was influenced by social change, but also by poets such as Emily Dickinson, who lived decades earlier. Does feminist poetry mean poems written by feminists or poetry about feminist subject matter? Must it be both? And who can write feminist poetry- feminists? Women? Men? There are many questions, but generally, feminist poets have a connection to feminism as a political movement. During the 1960s, many poets in the United States explored increased social awareness and self-realization. This included feminists, who claimed their place in society, poetry and political discourse. As a movement, feminist poetry is usually thought of as reaching a greater apex during the 1970s: Feminist poets were prolific and they began to achieve major critical acclaim, including several Pulitzer Prizes. On the other hand, many poets and critics suggest that feminists and their poetry have often been relegated to second place (to men) in the poetry establishment. Prominent Feminist Poets Maya Angelou: This incredibly prolific and powerful woman is one of the most well-known feminist poets, though she hasn’t always fallen in line with the cause. â€Å"The sadness of the women’s movement is that they don’t allow the necessity of love,† she wrote. â€Å"See, I don’t personally trust any revolution where love is not allowed.† Her poetry has often been praised for its depictions of black beauty, female women, and the human spirit. Her book Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water fore I Diiie, published in 1971, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize in 1972. Angelou received the Literarian Award in 2013, an honorary National Book Award for contributions to the literary community. She died at the age of 86 in 2014.Maxine Kumin: Kumin’s career spanned more than 50 years and she won the Pulitzer Prize, the Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize, and an American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters Award. Her poetry is deeply connected to her nat ive New England, and she was often called a regional pastoral poet. Denise Levertov: Levertov wrote and published 24 books of poetry. Her subjects reflected her beliefs as an artist and a humanist and her themes embraced nature lyrics, protest poetry, love poems and poetry inspired by her faith in God.Audre Lorde: Lorde described herself as a â€Å"black, lesbian, mother, warrior, poet.† Her poetry confronts the injustices of racism, sexism, and homophobia.Adrienne Rich: Richs poetry and essays spanned seven decades and her writing tackled issues of identity, sexuality and politics and her continued search for social justice, her role in the anti-war movement, and exploring her radical feminism.Muriel Rukeyser: Rukeyser was an American poet and political activist; she is best known for her poems about equality, feminism, social justice, and Judaism.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Was the Soviet System Reformable Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Was the Soviet System Reformable - Essay Example F. Cohen analyses the case of Soviet Union by looking at it from various angles. He also asks analytical questions as to why the Soviet Union perished and some of the contributing factors. He emphasizes that the prevailing view of changes that occurred under Mikhail Gorbachev’s six-year attempt to transform the Soviet Union along democratic and market lines to some extent proved that the system was unreformable. Cohen asserts that this is from his historical researches and perceptions regarding the non-reformability of the Soviet Union which according to him have been formulated and analyzed from time to time by other scholars too. According to him, the concepts driving the researchers and the ideologies of the reformability of Soviet Union are based on the Communist Party and its dictatorship, monopolistic state economy, and the slow responses of Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies. In his analysis, he emphasizes that it is important for scholars and historians to understand that reform doesn’t just merely refers to change but changes that improve people’s way of lives by widening political and economic freedom. Additionally, reform doesn’t mean a revolution or complete transformation of an existing order, but rather a piecemeal and gradual amendment within a systems broad historical, institutional and cultural dimensions. In the case of Soviet System, â€Å"real reforms† at that time was based on rapid and complete revolutions that would deem it very difficult to make reforms in the Soviet system. Cohen also argues that many studies conducted during the Soviet era however indicate that if certain policies were implemented then systematic change would have been possible in the Soviet system which was all dependent on Mikhail Gorbachev leadership. According to Cohen, other scholars and historians support this position because they are of the opinion that the structural violence which was at the center of Soviet system restrict ed the capabilities of Mikhail Gorbachev’s political, social and economic policies from becoming effective. Asking the question as to whether the Soviet system was reformable thus means asking if all the basic components and policies could be reformed. In fact historians argues that it makes no sense making assumptions that if any components or policies were supplemented by new ones or eliminated, the results would no longer be of the Soviet system. Furthermore, the Soviets of 1917 were generally elected, only turning into something else later. At this time there was no monopolistic control of the economy until the 1930s, and when the Stalinist mass terror which had been fundamental feature for 25 years ended no own would questioned if the system is still soviets. From these proponents historians and scholars argue that the Soviet System was not reformable and thus was doomed to be inherent defects (Kuvaldin, 22). Cohen also attributes the Soviet Union to the five transformat ions of the communist system which was generally advancing towards an economic  policy to be adopted in the Soviet  Union intended to increase central planning and labor efficiency. It however eventually led to the end of central planning in the Russian economy. The transformations were heavily determined by the communist system which included the monopoly of power by the communist party, democratic